Hilaire Hiler was an artist. No, he was a jazz musician. No, he was a psychologist. No, he was a color theoretician. In fact, he was all of these things.
Hilaire Hiler was born in Minnesota and died in Paris. He has a Philadelphia connection having studied at the University of Pennsylvania and briefly at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. After living and studying in various cities around the United States, he left for Europe around 1919 and made a living playing jazz in the Montmartre district of Paris.
The old order of the 19th Century had started to crumble by the end of World War I. Life seemed all the more precious for those who had experienced the horrors of the war first hand. People were questioning the wisdom of old values with their rigid rules of conformity. World War I had exposed a generation of young people to places and cultures they would never have otherwise seen and it opened them to new possibilities. What if everything they had learned was wrong?
Paris was a Mecca for creative people in search of nurturing and support for their art. They could not find it at home, but the bohemian and eccentric could find community and acceptance in Paris. African American artists of the time could live and work in Paris without the constant onus of the historically ingrained racism they experienced in America. Many of the expatriates settled in Montmartre. Press here to watch a short video of Paris at that time. Press here to get some idea of what Montmartre was like when Hiler arrived. Press here for an article.
Hiler had reportedly attended the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania to make his father happy before he clarified what was important to him, embraced his artistic side and left for Paris. I have read varying accounts of Hiler’s time in Paris: That he played the piano with a monkey on his shoulder. That he owned or managed a club. That he played the saxophone. Our guides in San Francisco told us and several web sites confirm that he painted a number of murals on the walls of nightclubs in the district. But none of them remain today because when Hitler invaded Paris in 1940, the Nazis embarked on a program to eradicate what they termed “degenerate” art. Hiler’s murals were among the many works they destroyed.
Which means that the only place left to see Hiler’s murals (recently restored) is the lobby of the Maritime Museum in San Francisco. It is reported that when Henry Miller first walked into the lobby and saw the murals, he asked Hiler to teach him how to paint.
Here are some pictures.
In his later years, Hiler’s art became more abstract as you can see from his work on this site but his exploration of color and the infinite possibilities for its expression was always a central focus in his work.
As a jazz musician, Hiler used musical such as tone and harmony to describe color. “The harmonious relations of structure and order presented in a new way, in the nature of a continuum. Relations of degree, and those of geometric progression of color-form, replace relations of simple analogy—or in turn of contrast, by opposition. As the sequential relations of Structuralism design resemble those of natural growth, it may be termed organic. In this sense, it is like certain kinds of music.” (Hiler, Structuralism, London, Heal & Son, 1955). From Hiler, Hilaire Biography, download here.
This blog post only scratches the surface of Hiler, his art and his fascinating life. If anyone has additional information and would like to share, I invite you to leave a comment.